While working on creating the next version of the pmsApp OVA, I ran into some issues so I thought I would try to make a small guide to creating an OVA here. Mostly for my own benefit.
I installed version 0.2 of the pmsApp and updated it to get the latest software versions. When I then tried to create a new OVA it turned out to be quite a lot larget than the original. I needed to make the image smaller.
I started out by clearing the yum cache and uninstalling the old kernel, that shrinked the used space to around the same as before the update. I found this guide as to how to prepare a VM to be a template, that freed up a bit more space.
Using VirtualBox, i created an OVA from the VM. Now the problem is that an OVA created with VirtualBox can not be imported into ESXi. Fortunately an OVA is actually just a tar archive so I was able to extract the .ovf file and the vmdk’s without issues. After that it is a queston of editing the ovf and changing the hardware version from virtualbox-2.2 to vmx-Y where Y is the vmware hardware version wanted. I plan on going with vmx-8.
Now the problem is assemling the OVA again, to do that, I used vmware’s ovftool, but it wants a .mf file to ensure that the files are not corrupted. I found this article, explaining how to create the .mf file.
To have everything in one place, here is what I have done to the VM to make it into an OVA:
First, we are working “inside” the VM to reduce space used.
service rsyslog stop service auditd stop
Remove old kernels:
uname -a rpm -qa | grep kernel #remove old kernel versions with. yum remove
Clean yum cache:
yum clean all
logrotate -f /etc/logrotate.conf rm –f /var/log/*-???????? /var/log/*.gz /var/log/*.old /var/log/anac* cat /dev/null > /var/log/audit/audit.log cat /dev/null > /var/log/wtmp cat /dev/null > /var/log/lastlog #there might be other logfiles to empty out with cat /dev/null #*I will update this next time I go through the process
Clean tmp space:
rm -rf /tmp/* rm -rf /var/tmp/*
Zero out freespace to ensure disk images can be made as small as possible:
dd if=/dev/zero of=/boot/zerofile bs=1M sync rm -rf /boot/zerofile dd if=/dev/zero of=/zerofile bs=1M sync rm +rf /zerofile
Finally shut down the vm:
shutdown -h now
Using VirtualBox, I exported the VM as pmsApp-0.3.ova. Next are the steps taken to ensure that the OVA is as small as possible and can be imported by ESXi.
mv pmsApp-0.3.ova pmsApp-0.3.tar tar xf pmsApp-0.3.tar
Above step can be skipped if the VM is exported as .ovf instead of .ova
Replace the system type to ensure that the OVA can be imported by ESXi:
sed 's/virtualbox-2.2/vmx-8/g' pmsApp-0.3.ovf > pmsApp-tmp.ovf mv pmsApp-tmp.ovf pmsApp-0.3.ovf
Ensure that the disk image is as small as possible:
qemu-img convert -p -O vmdk pmsApp-0.3-disk1.vmdk thindisk.vmdk mv thindisk.vmdk pmsApp-0.3-disk1.vmdk
Create a manifest file to ensure data consistency in OVA:
openssl sha1 *.ovf *.vmdk > pmsApp-0.3.mf
Create the OVA:
ovftool pmsApp-0.3.ovf pmsApp-0.3.ova